Archive issue - vol.9, No.1



   No.   Author(s) - Title
Pages

   1.
 

  D.A. Nethercot and L. Gardner -- Exploiting the special features of stainless steel in structural design
 

7-23
 

   2.
 

  S.L. Dong and Y. Zhao -- Pretensioned long-span steel space structures in China
 

25-36
 

   3.
 

  M.A. Bradford and Y.-L. Pi -- Design of steel arches against in-plane instability
 

37-45
 

   4.
 

  Z.Y. Shen and Z.S. Song -- FEM analyses of steel members and connections considering damage cumulation effects under cyclic loading
 

47-62
 

   5.
 

  Luis Costa Neves, Luis Simoes da Silva and Pedro C.G. da S. Vellasco -- Experimental behaviour of end plate i-beam to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section column joints
 

63-80
 

   6.
 

  Y.J. Shi, Z.F. Li, H. Chen and Y.Q. Wang -- Cyclic tests on improved beam-column connections
 

81-89
 

   7.
 

  Yoshiaki Goto and Naoki Kawanishi -- A unified structural analysis method to predict long-term mechanical performance of steel structures considering corrosion and repair
 

91-104
 

   8.
 

  K.F. Chung -- A review of recent developments on design of perforated beams
 

105-129
 

   9.
 

  S. Chaudhary, S.K. Tomar and V.P. Kaushik -- Transmission of plane SH-wave through a self-reinforced elastic slab sandwiched between two anisotropic inhomogeneous elastic solid half-spaces
 

131-146
 

   10.
 

  T.K. Kar and A. Lahiri -- Eigenvalue approach to gerneralized thermoelasticity in an isotropic medium with an instantaneous heat source
 

147-160
 

   11.
 

  J. Slota, E. Spisak and F. Stachowicz -- Investigation of biaxial stress-strain relationship of steel sheet metal
 

161-168
 

   12.
 

  A.K.L. Srivastava, P.K. Datta and A.H. Sheikh -- Parametric instability of stiffened plates
 

169-180
 

   13.
 

  M. Yrsoy, M. Pakdemirli and .F. Noyan -- Approximate analytical solutions to thermo-poro-elastic equations
 

181-187
 

 



1.

EXPLOITING THE SPECIAL FEATURES OF STAINLESS STEEL IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN

D.A. NETHERCOT and L. GARDNER

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ, UNITED KINGDOM

     This paper outlines a new approach to structural stainless steel design that is based on exploiting the full deformation capacity of cross-sections, by adopting a continuous method of cross-section classification and member design, coupled with more accurate material modelling. Recently generated laboratory test results are presented, and it is shown how these have been used in combination with existing test data to validate the proposed method. A comparison of the prediction of test results is made for the proposed procedure and the Eurocode approach for square and rectangular hollow section stub columns, beams and pin-ended columns failing by flexural buckling. Average design advantages of around 20-25% are achieved.

Key words:

cross-section classification, Eurocode 3, local buckling, stainless steel, structural engineering.

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2.

PRETENSIONED LONG-SPAN STEEL SPACE STRUCTURES IN CHINA

S.L. DONG and Y. ZHAO

Space Structures Research Center, Department of Civil Engineering
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P.R. CHINA

     Pretensioned long-span steel space structures are a new type of hybrid structures resulting from combining modern prestressing technology with long-span structures such as space grid structures (including space trusses and lattice shells), cable-bar tensioned structures and spatial truss structures. These structures have been developed rapidly and have found many applications in China in the recent decade. This paper provides a review of applications and developments of pretensioned long-span steel structures in China. The following topics on new technologies and new structures are given emphasis: prestressed grid structures, cable-stayed grid structures, beam string structures and prestressed segmental steel trusses. Prospects for pretensioned steel space structures are presented at the end of the paper.

Key words:

pretensioned structures, long-span structures, steel space structures, application, development, prospects.

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3.

DESIGN OF STEEL ARCHES AGAINST IN-PLANE INSTABILITY

M.A. BRADFORD and Y.-L. PI

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
The University of New South Wales, UNSW
Sydney, NSW 2052, AUSTRALIA
e-mail: m.bradford@unsw.edu.au

     Steel arches may be subject to instability caused by in-plane buckling or out-of-plane flexural-torsional buckling. The in-plane buckling of flat steel arches is addressed in this paper, where the method of virtual work is used to determine the buckling loads of circular arches with either pinned or fixed ends and subjected to a uniform loading distributed radially around the arch, and to a point load at the crown. The formulation includes the nonlinear prebuckling configuration of the arch, in deference to the classical stability formulations that treat the prebuckling response as being linear. Design formulae for the elastic buckling loads of arches are derived, as are the limits of the arch modified slenderness that delineates between antisymmetric and symmetric (snap-through) buckling modes.

Key words:

arches, buckling, design, elasticity, snap-through.

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4.

FEM ANALYSES OF STEEL MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS CONSIDERING DAMAGE CUMULATION EFFECTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADING

Z.Y. SHEN and Z.S. SONG

State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering
Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, CHINA

     Due to the expansion of micro defects, the mechanical properties of structural steel, such as yielding strength, Young's modulus and hardening coefficient will deteriorate under cyclic loadings, and low cycles fatigue failure may take place. Based on continuum damage theory and experimental results, a cumulative damage mechanics model using effective plastic strain is suggested. A general procedure of FEM analysis considering damage cumulation effects is presented and damage crack criterion is proposed as well. Cantilever members subjected to cyclic loading are numerically simulated with FEM program which took the damage cumulation into consideration. The analytical results agree very well with the experiments, and hence, the proposed cumulative damage mechanics model is demonstrated to be accurate enough to simulate the behavior of steel structures under seismic loading. Since the model proposed in the paper can also calculate the cumulation of the damage, it means that the method can also be adopted to access the seismic behavior of steel structures under earthquakes.

Key words:

low cycles fatigue, damage cumulation, finite element method.

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5.

EXPERIMENTAL BEHAVIOUR OF END PLATE I-BEAM TO CONCRETE-FILLED RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTION COLUMN JOINTS

Lus Costa NEVES

Civil Engineering Department, University of Coimbra
Plo II - Pinhal de Marrocos, 3000 Coimbra, PORTUGAL
e-mail: luis@dec.uc.pt

Lus Simoes da SILVA
Civil Engineering Department, University of Coimbra
Polo II - Pinhal de Marrocos, 3000 Coimbra, PORTUGAL

Pedro C.G. da S. VELLASCO
Structural Engineering Department
UERJ - State University of Rio de Janeiro, BRAZIL

     The behaviour of joints in steel rectangular hollow sections filled with concrete is frequently governed by the deformability of the column face loaded in bending. A good estimate of the joint moment-rotation response relies on the knowledge of the behaviour of this component, yet to be fully characterized. With the objective of providing design procedures for this type of joints within the framework of the component method, already adopted by Eurocode 3 to assess the moment-rotation behaviour of joints, an experimental study on test specimens loaded under monotonic loading is presented. Test setup, tested geometries, instrumentation and a description of the behaviour are described in detail, focusing on the column face stress distribution and deformation pattern. The moment-rotation curves and the resulting models to establish the force-displacement curves are presented. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of the influence of the main geometrical parameters on the joint behaviour.

Key words:

experimental behaviour, concrete-filled hollow section, joints, component method in Eurocode 3, moment-rotation characteristics, component behaviour, ductility.

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6.

CYCLIC TESTS ON IMPROVED BEAM-COLUMN CONNECTIONS

Y.J. SHI, Z.F. LI, H. CHEN and Y.Q. WANG

Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, CHINA
e-mail: shiyj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

     After the Northridge earthquake in 1994, some researches in USA have identified three critical issues that significantly affect the strength and ductility of beam-column connections: (i) fracture toughness of weld metal, (ii) geometry and size of weld access hole, and (iii) control of panel zone deformation. This paper reports the experimental results from the second phase of a major research program on ductility of welded beam column connections under cyclic loadings which is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China. The experiments focus on the geometry and size of weld access hole. Three new types of connection details are proposed and eight full size specimens are tested under cyclic loading. The ductility, the stress concentration behaviour, and the hysteretic behavior of these connections are investigated. Moreover, the influence of connection details on both the ultimate strength and the premature fracture behaviour of these connections are also analyzed, formulating advices on improvement of connection details. The experimental results provide valuable information for updating the seismic design code of high-rise steel buildings in China.

Key words:

beam-column connections, cyclic tests, fracture failure, steel structures.

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7.

A UNIFIED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS METHOD TO PREDICT LONG-TERM MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF STEEL STRUCTURES CONSIDERING CORROSION AND REPAIR

YOSHIAKI GOTO

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology
Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, JAPAN

NAOKI KAWANISHI
Research Associate, Toyota National College of Technology
Eisei-cho, Toyota 471-8525, JAPAN

     A unified structural analysis method is developed in order to take into account the histories of corrosion loss of material and repair on their long-term mechanical performance of steel structures in addition to the histories of the damages caused by excessive external loads, e.g. big seismic loads. This analysis method is characterized by the point that the volume change in material due to corrosion or repair is adopted as a new controlling parameter in addition to the conventional parameters such as load and displacement. By introducing this new parameter, the histories of corrosion and repair process under dead loads is precisely simulated. That is, the change in residual stress and deformation caused by corrosion under dead loads can be accurately evaluated at an arbitrary point of their lifetime. As a result, the effect of this change in residual stress and deformation can be reflected in assessing the ultimate behavior of steel structures, thus improving the accuracy of predicting the long-term mechanical performance of steel structures.

Key words:

corrosion, repair, finite element method, long-term mechanical performance.

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8.

A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON DESIGN OF PERFORATED BEAMS

K.F. CHUNG

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, HONG KONG
e-mail: cekchung@polyu.edu.hk

     In modern commercial or residential buildings with high specifications in building services, a common method of incorporating services within the floor-ceiling zone of buildings is to create large openings in the webs of beam members. The openings are most likely to be rectangular or circular, and may be in the form of discrete openings, or a series of openings, along the member length of the beam. Over the past few decades, the structural behaviour of beams with web openings was a popular research topic, and numerous research projects were executed and reported including experimental investigations, finite element studies, and also development of design rules. This paper presents a review on recent developments on design of perforated steel beams with web openings of various shapes and sizes.

Key words:

perforated beams, design development, tee section approach, perforated section approach, shear-moment interaction curves, and web openings of various shapes and sizes.

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9.

TRANSMISSION OF PLANE SH-WAVE THROUGH A SELF-REINFORCED ELASTIC SLAB SANDWICHED BETWEEN TWO ANISOTROPIC INHOMOGENEOUS ELASTIC SOLID HALF-SPACES

S. CHAUDHARY and V.P. KAUSHIK

Department of Mathematics, Kurukshetra University
Kurukshetra - 136 119, INDIA

S.K. TOMAR
Department of Mathematics, Panjab University
Chandigarh - 160 014, INDIA
e-mail: sktomar@yahoo.com

     A problem of reflection and transmission of an SH-wave through a self-reinforced elastic slab (layer) sandwiched between two transversely isotropic and inhomogeneous elastic solid half-spaces has been investigated. Formulae for reflection and refraction coefficients are obtained in a closed form and it is found that these coefficients are strongly influenced by the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the half-spaces and on the reinforcement parameters of the sandwiched layer. These coefficients are computed for different values of heterogeneity parameters of the half-spaces and reinforcement parameters of the sandwiched layer. An effect of thickness of sandwiched layer on these coefficients is also noticed.

Key words:

reinforcement, SH-wave reflection and transmission, inhomogeneity, anisotropy, sandwiched layer.

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10.

EIGENVALUE APPROACH TO GERNERALIZED THERMOELASTICITY IN AN ISOTROPIC MEDIUM WITH AN INSTANTANEOUS HEAT SOURCE

T.K. KAR

Department of Mathematics, Sponsored Teachers' Training College
Deshbandhu Road: Purulia - 723101, West Bengal, INDIA
e-mail: tuhin_k@yahoo.com

A. LAHIRI
R.C.C. - Institute of Information Technology
South Canal Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata - 700015, INDIA
e-mail: lahiriabhijit@hotmail.com

     The fundamental equations of plane strain problems in generalised thermoelasticity with one relaxation time parameter including the heat source have been written in the form of a vector matrix differential equation. Integral transform techniques are adopted, namely: the Laplace transform for the time variable and the exponential Fourier transform for one of the space variables. Exact expressions for the temperature distribution, thermal stresses and displacement components are obtained in the Laplace-Fourier transform domain. A numerical approach is implemented for the inversion of both transforms in order to obtain the solution in physical domain. Finally, numerical computations of the stresses and temperature have been made and represented graphically (for different values of time t and relaxation time parameter t as shown in the figures).

Key words:

eigenvalue, gerneralized thermoelasticity, Laplace-Fourier transform, vector-matrix differential equation.

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11.

INVESTIGATION OF BIAXIAL STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP OF STEEL SHEET METAL

J. SLOTA, E. SPISAK

Technical University of Kosice, Letna 5, Kosice, SLOVAK REPUBLIK

F. STACHOWICZ
Technical University of Rzeszw, ul. W. Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszw, POLAND
e-mail: stafel@prz.rzszow.pl

     The stress-strain relationship of the deep drawing quality (DDQ) and intersitial free (IF) steel sheets was determined by uniaxial and equibiaxial (hydraulic bulging) tensile tests. The sheet thickness gradation in different points of the hemisphere formed in the bulge test was analysed, both experimentally and theoretically. The Hollomon equation was used to describe uniaxial and biaxial strain hardening curves, and the differential (strain dependent) strain hardening exponent nt was determined on the basis of the results of uniaxial and biaxial testing.

Key words:

strain hardening, biaxial strain state, bulging test, sheet thickness distribution.

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12.

PARAMETRIC INSTABILITY OF STIFFENED PLATES

A.K.L. SRIVASTAVA and P.K. DATTA

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur - 721302, INDIA
e-mail: rsaksriv@aero.iitkgp.ernet.in
e-mail: pkdatta@aero.iitkgp.ernet.in

A.H. SHEIKH
Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, INDIA
e-mail: hamid@naval.iitkgp.ernet.in

     The parametric instability behavior of a stiffened plate subjected to uniform in-plane edge loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The method of Hill's infinite determinants is applied to analyze the dynamic instability regions. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effects of various parameters, such as the aspect ratio, boundary condition, stiffening scheme, on the dynamic stability of stiffened plates. The results show that the location, size and number of stiffeners have a significant effect on the location of the boundaries of the principal instability regions when compared with those of a flat unstiffened plate.

Key words:

finite element, stiffened plates, dynamic instability, excitation frequency.

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13.

APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS TO THERMO-PORO-ELASTIC EQUATIONS

M. YRSOY

Department of Mechanical Education, Technical Education Faculty
Afyon Kocatepe University 03200, Afyon, TURKEY

M. PAKDEMIRLI
Department of Mechanical Engineering
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Dhahran 31261, SAUDI ARABIA
e-mail: pakdemirli@yahoo.com

.F. NOYAN
Department of Civil Engineering, Celal Bayar University
45140 Muradiye, Manisa, TURKEY

     Thermo-poro-elastic equations describing the pressure and temperature diffusion from a deep layer of high temperature and pressure to a fluid saturated porous permeable layer are considered. The coupled partial differential system is transformed into an ordinary differential system via similarity transformations. Approximate analytical solutions to the ordinary differential system are found using perturbation methods and the criteria for validity of the solutions are established. Series solutions of the ordinary differential system are also given. Perturbation solutions and series solutions are contrasted with numerical solutions. When the criteria are met, perturbation solutions and numerical solutions are in good agreement. In contrast, the series solutions have a limited range of applicability.

Key words:

thermo-poro-elastic equations, perturbation methods, similarity transformations.

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